Participants spoke lakeshore Chitumbuka, which we use throughout the Chitumbuka site. We wanted to show how language is culturally expressive and ever changing so we kept adapted English (e.g. ‘Jenda’ – Gender) or Chichewa words (e.g. kubelenge – to read) where they were used in the vernacular. It was striking that development and committee speech has been adapted to describe domestic relationships and aspirations, including fatherhood, so that a father needs to be strong to “do development” for his children and finish “the programme”. Or a household head who shows leadership while listening is a “chairman in the house”.

Malipenga, a traditional tumbuka men's dance