kwakuyana

Read about the methods and partnerships behind Becoming Fathers (a four year public health research project) including the participants, sampling methods, the interview technique and the funders.

kwakuyana

"ULENDO WAKUFUMA KUCHINYAMATA KUYA KU UDADA" ni ntchito iyo yikagwilika kwa vyaka 4 (2011-2015)  ikapangika kusandasanda makhumbilo gha banalume na ivyo bakukumana navyo pakuba na bana, chomemechomene pakulabiska umo bakukhwaskikila pa umoyo wa ibo bene na bawoli babo pa umoyo wakubaba. Tikakhumbanga kupulikiska umo banalume bakuchitila pa masuzgo ghakubaba, kusazgilapo HIV/AIDS na vinyakhe. Chilato chikulu cha ntchito iyi nkhulongola ivyo banthu bakukumana navyo pa nkhani zakubaba mu boma la Karonga, ichi ntchigaba cha ku mizi ku mpoto kwa Malawi, mwakuti chibe chipusu kusambilapo pa ivyo vyasangika.

Tikasunga vidumbilano vya banalume 55 pamoza nabawoli babo vyakukhwaskana na umoyo wakubaba mu vidumbilano 200 vya munthu payekha payekha. Tikapulika vyamasuzgo ghakuzilwa ghakukhwaskana na umoyo na mazaza pa nkhani zakubaba kufuma ku banalume bakusazgilapo 50 na banakazi muvidumbilano vya chisanisani ivyo vikagabika muvigaba vya banalume panji banakazi, misinkhu na masambilo ghabo. Bakugwila ntchito zaumoyo, ng’anga na balongozgi ba mpingo bakabikapo maghanoghano ghabo pa mitu yakupenja wovwili mukafukufuku. Banalume na banakazi bakujumpha 150 bavyaka 18-60 bakatolapo lwande. 

Abo bakazomelezga kafukufuku uyu mba Malawi National Health Sciences Research Committee (NHSRC) naba London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine. Bose abo bakatolapo lwande bakazomelezga pakulemba, kuti ivyo bayowoya na vithuzithuzi vyabo vikagwiliskike ntchito mukafukufuku.

Kafukufuku wa kufika ku udada wakachitika mwakukolelelana na Amsterdam Institute for Social Science Research (AISSR) University of Amsterdam, the Karonga Prevention Study, Malawi and the London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine. Vyakulongola na makina ya website yakapangika mwakukolelanako naba On the Record Community Interest Company.

Ntchito iyi yikavwilika naba Nederlandse Organisatie voor Wetenschappelijk Onderzoek [Netherlands Organisation for Scientific Research] NWO-WOTRO Innovational Research Incentives Scheme (VENI Grant C.2520.0299.01.) 

All material copyright  © Becoming Fathers, 2015.

kapangilo ka vyakulongola

Vyakulongola ivi vyatoleka kufuma muvidumbilano vyama ola 233.

Mitu 10- ya vidoka vyabanyamata kufika kumalilo wankhani zakubaba- vikudumba vya masuzgo na ivyo vikachitikanga kabilikabili pankhani zaumoyo wabo. Tikakhumbanga kulongola nthowa zakupambanapambana izo banalume bakutondela masuzgo ghakukhwaskana na umoyo wakubaba, mmalo mwakulongola ivyo vili kusangika kale. Pakulongola nthowa zakuthaskila nthumbo panji kupimiska HIV ngati mphepete yimoza yabanalume pankhani zakubaba, chilato chithu chikaba chakuti tilongole umo ntchito zakuzilwa zaumoyo umo zikusinthila nyengo na nyengo. Tikakhumbanga kulongola umo banalume bakuyowoyela nakupenja chitemes, chinganamulo, ntchindi na mbili (kuzilwa kwakukumbukilika nabana).

Pakugwiliska ntchito mazgo ghakuwunjika vinthu ngati "balimi banandi", "banyakhe", "bachoko" yakulongola unonono uwo wulipo pakuyowoya mwachisanisani vyaumoyo wabanthu bakupambanapambana. Mmalo mwakhe tikayezga kulongola mazgolo ya banthu agho ghakiza na maghanoghano na midauko yabo. Bakafukufuku banandi bakukhwaskana na unandi wa banthu abo bachitika bakulongola kuti pali kusintha mu kabilo kaumoyo wakubaba kwa banalume na banakazi mu boma la Karonga panyengo yasono. Ukaboni wa ivi wulipo apa.    

Vithuzithuzi vyabikika pamoza na mazgo agho bayowoya vikulongola nyengo zakusintha panji maghanoghano ghabo pa umoyo wawo pankhani zakubaba,nakupenjelezga umoyo wachitemwa na vibwezi,kubaba nakughanaghanila unandi wabana. Pakwamba vithuzithuzi ivi vikatoleka na chilato chakubawonga bakutolapo lwande abo bakasankha umo bangatolekela. Vithuzithuzi ivi vikajambulika umo ibo bakulongolela chitemwa kweniso kutowa mwakukolelanaso na kafukufuku uyu. Belengani vyakukhwaskana na vithuzithuzi apa.

Nthowa yimoza yakufikapo kwandaniskila makani gha chisanisani gha vya umoyo nkhugwiliska ntchito banthu bamisinkhu yimoza, sono tikugomezga kuti website iyi yibenge nthowa yakuzilwa iyo banalume na bakutemweka babo bagabilanenge ivyo bakumanapo navyo. Bakuwona malo ghamu Malawi na kunyakhe bangamanya kupeleka mazgolo mwachisanisani mwakuti makani agha tighalutilizge.

Tikuwonga waliyose uyo wakatolapo lwande, nakuzomelezga mwakujipeleka kugwiliska ntchito mazgo na vithuzithuzi vyabo nakukolelana nase kuti ntchito iyi yifike apa.

 

 

 Bakutolapo lwande bakupokela vithuzithuzi vyabo. 

Bakutolapo lwande bakupokela vithuzithuzi vyabo. 

mbanjani wakatolapo lwande?

Banandi mwa abo wakatolapo lwande bakalembela kwendela munthowa yaba Karonga Prevention Study health and demographic surveillance system (KPS Profile). Panyengo yakafukufuku wakumanyuma banthu bakalombeka usange bangazomelezga kuti bazakalondezgeke na kuphalilika vyakufukufuku wa vyakugonana na umoyo wakubaba. Tikasola vigaba vitatu kuti vilongole umu vigaba vya mumizi vilili mu boma la Karonga, ivyo vikusazga mizi iyo yakufupi na msewu wukulu na trading centre, mizi ya balimi bamkaya na mizi ya balovi mphepete mwanyanja. Banalume bakasoleka mwa apa na apa, mwakuwoneseska kuti banthu bakukhumbikwa bakhwaskika. Nimwanalume yumoza pela uyo wakakana kutolapo lwande muvidumbilano vyaumoyo wakhe, ivyo vikanozgekela umo iyo wakakhumbila. Vidumbilano vyapawumba vikaba vyakusuzga kunozgela. Pafupifupi banthu 80 pa 100 abo bakalembeka kale bakiza pavidumbilano.   

Mwantheula tikapulika kufuma ku banalume bakupambanapambana kusazgila abo nkhanandi vibi yayi kusangika pa nyumba. Vyakulemba umo tikendanga vikalongola umo ngozi, ulwale na kugwila ntchito mwankhongono vikachedweskelanga vidumbilano (mwachiyelezgelo balovi wakendelanga mwela wanyanja umo ulili ndipo kuti bakalindizganga panyumba yayi nanga wuli mwapangana). Bakufufuza bakalutanga na njala zabo nakusunga nyengo mwakuti wakhwaskane na abo balikulembeka ntchito pa nyengo ya chakulya cha muhanya.

VYAKULEMBA UMO WAKENDELA GREEN KAPIRA

“Nkhafika panyumba ya wakutolapo lwande uyu kachibili padazi ili na nyengo ya 14:00hrs. Nkhapokeleleka na muwoli wakhe uyo wakapyelanga pa lufukwa. Tati tatauzgana wakandiphalila kuti mfumu wakhe wagona chifukwa walowanga somba usiku kweniso kwamba namulenji mpaka muhanya. Bati bamuwuska mutulo mbwenu tikatauzgana. Nkhaba wakukondwa nati namuwona wakutolapo lwande uyu chifukwa ndakhala nkhupambana nayo kwakukwana 8 panyumba pakhe nanga tibe kuti tapangana. Wakatondekanga kusangika, muwoli wakhe wakazgolanga kuti waluta kukalowa somba panyengo yose iyi nkhalutanga. Pakutauzgana tose tikaseka kuyana naumo nkhatondekelanga kumusanga. Wakutolapo lwande wakalongosola vinandi vyakukhwaskana naumoyo wakhe, nyengo zinyakhe wakasekanga na kukondwa. Nkhaghanaghana kulekelezge vidumbilano nati nawona kuti wakutolapo lwande wamba kusiwa”

VYAKULEMBA UMO WAKENDELA BLESSINGS MWANDOSYA

“Apo nkhaghanaghananga zakufumapo ndipo vula yikamba kulokwa chomene, mwantheula ivi vikanipangiska kuti ndikhale nyengo yitali na wakutolapo lwande. Bakawa na vyakuvwala vyakuti wasone kweni pakuti nkhaba ndichali penipapo wakatondekanga kwamba kusona, sono nkhamuphalilakuti palije suzgo. Tikamba kuchezga ndipo bakawa na visambizgo viwemi vya nthengwa panyengo iyo bakasonelanga.” 

VYAKULEMBA UMO WAKENDELA AARON NDOVI

“Tikapulikana na wakutolapo lwande kuti tizadumbiskane na nyengo ya 11:00. Pakuti wakutolapo lwande wakawavya foni nkhanyamuka kuya kunyumba kwakhe nyengo ya 10:00. Apo nkhaba paulendo wakuluta kukaya kwawo nkhawona wakutolapo lwande waghegha muwoli wakhe namwana panjinga. Bakaniphalila kuti wakuluta kuchipatala cha Private ku Uliwa kuti wakapenje mankhwala wa mwana uyo walwala. Bakati pakwamba banguluta kuchipatala chaku Fulirwa sono bati basanga kuti kulije munkhwala ndipo baghanaghananga zakuluta kuchipatala cha private. Tikapulikana kuti tisinthe za zuwa la vidumbilano. Pati pajumpha mazuba yachoko nkhazalutaso kunyumba yawakutolapo lwande uyu na nyengo ya 8:40. Ndati ndafika muwoli wakhe ndiyo wakandipokelela nakundipasa mpando wakuti nikhalepo. Bakandiphalila kuti wakutolapo lwande uyu baluta kukapenja mkusa wakukakila mbuzi pathondo lapafupi nanyumba kweni wizenge nyengo yiliyose.”

Mwantheula, banalume 55 na bawoli babo 42 ndiwo bakatolapo lwande muvidumbilano vya umoyo wabo, nakusazgilapo banalume 50 na banakazi kutolapo lwande muvidumbilano vya pawumba. Banthu bose bakatola chigaba chakumpoto kuba kukwabo, banandi mwaibo bakaba ba Tumbuka. Banalume bachoko chomene bakaba bambula kutola. Banalume abo bakaba balala chomene bakaphala mwa myati ivyo bakakumananga navyo, kwamba kukutolapo banakazi 5 mpaka 10 nakachibwezi kapasukulu. Apa banyakhe bakasuzgika na vyakuwinya vyakubavya mwana banyakhe bakababa bana 12. Waliyose wakadokelanga kuzenga nyumba yamalata, apo bakawuskapo ntchito yakuvuska yakwegha chaka na chaka. Apo banyakhe bakakhalanga mu ukavu banyakhe bakakhalanga mwakufwasa munyumba za njelwa, simenti na magalasi, magesi na Television. Hafu wabanthu bakutolapo lwande bakagwiliska ntchito ma foni. 

Baliyose bakaba kuti bafikako ku pulayimale ndipo bachoko waka ndiwo wakamalizga sekondale nakulutilizga. Banalume banandi bakaba balimi, bakulondezgapo bakawa balovi, ba bizinesi na bantchito ngati basambizgi, bakalipentala na bakugwila ntchito zachipatala. Vikati vyajumphapo vyaka 10 vya ntchito yakupima HIV ivyo vikapangika na bachipatala, mawupu ya mvikaya na abo bakupanga kafukufuku wa nyumba na nyumba, banalume banandi bakajimanya umo balili munthupi mwawo, ndipo mwakuchiskika bakasanga munkhwala.  

 Mapu ya Malawi yakulongola chigaba cha Karonga Health and Demographic Surveillance Site (HDDS) mu boma la Karonga ilo lili kuwumalilo kumpoto kwa Nyanja ya Malawi. Mapu yachibili yichoko yikulongola nyumba na vipatala vya mu. © Karonga Prevention Study

Mapu ya Malawi yakulongola chigaba cha Karonga Health and Demographic Surveillance Site (HDDS) mu boma la Karonga ilo lili kuwumalilo kumpoto kwa Nyanja ya Malawi. Mapu yachibili yichoko yikulongola nyumba na vipatala vya mu. © Karonga Prevention Study

vidumbilano

“Nthowa yavidumbilano yilingati muhingi. Mungasintha nthowa kweni mungakanizga kwenda yayi.”

Visambizgo ivi vikapika kwa abo bakapanga vidumbilano vya banalume 55 na bawoli bawo 42, kanandi munyumba zawo.

Tikavitola vidumbilano ivi ngati mbili zakulongozgeka za umoyo wawo pakugwiliska ntchito mafumbo ghakupeleka mwabi kuti munthu wandule vinandi kweniso kwambula kumlongozga muvidumbilano vyose. Chidumbilano chilichose chikamba namazgo yakuti ‘ndiphalilanipo ivyo mukukumbuka paumoyo winu kwali viweme panji vihene’ ivyo mwakumanapo navyo paumoyo winu’ nakulutilizga, mpaka vidumbilano vitatu kwabanalume abo bakatolapo lwande, navibili kwa banakazi. Tikakhumbanga kusamba na kuti bakumbuke ivyo banakumanapo navyo, maghanoghano, umo bakapulikilanga na vyakudoka vyawo  kukhwaskana na umoyo wakubaba.

Bakupanga kafukufuku bakaba na mitu yakubalongozga mu maghanoghano ghabo mwantheula kukawavya kusinthasintha, nangauli vikatolelanga maghanoghano gha bakutolapo lwande. Vyambili  ya umoyo wawo vikalembekanga pamoza na bakutolapo lwande, kovwila kuti vilongozge makola vidumbilano na kuwelela ku makani ya ivyo vikachitika vyakukhwaskana nakubaba mwakulutilila, chomenechomene pa chidumbilano chakwamba.

Tikasazgapo maghanoghano gha kubaba na makani ghaumoyo wakugonana kumalilo wa vidumbilano. Vidumbilano vyawumba zikaba nthowa zikulu zakusandila maghanoghano pamakani ghaumoyo wakubaba. Nangauli, vya kulongola ivi vikwandula chomeni paivyo tikavisanga vya mbili yaumoyo wabo, tikavighaniska na ivyo tikavisanga pavidumbilano vyawumba mwakuti vileke kupambana. 

Vidumbilano vyambili ya umoyo wabo vikakhozgeleka namaghanoghano yakupambanapambana agho ghakapelekeka na wakugwila ntchito zaumoyo wakufuma kuvipatala vyamkaya na vyamumaboma,muzing’anga, baliska na balala bampingo pa makani yakupempha wovwili agho ghakapelekeka mu mbili zaumoyo wabo.

fieldwork in Karonga District, Malawi

bakutolapo lwande

Bakutolapo lwande bakayowoya chitumbuka cha mphepete mwanyanja, icho tikugwiliska ntchito muchigaba ichi chachitumbuka. Tikakhumbanga kulongola umo chiyowoyelo chikugwiliskikila ntchito mwakuyana namidauko na kusinthasintha kwakhe ndipo tilikugwiliskamo ntchito mazgo yakubwelekela kufuma kuchizunga (mwachiyelezgelo. "Jenda" – Gender) panji mazgo ghamu chichewa (mwachiyelezgelo kubelenga – to read) uko vikagwiliskika ntchito muchiyowoyelo chakumalo agho. Chikaba chakuzizika kuti makani ghakulutiska umoyo panthazi na pa nkhumano vikatoleka pakwandula ubale panyumba na vidoka, kusazgilapo udada, mwakuti dada wabe wankhongono “kuchita vyakulutiska panthazi umoyo” wabana wabo nakumalizga “chilato chawo chakubaba.” Panji mutu wapanyumba uyo wakulongola ulongozgi uko wakuteghelezga “uyu ni tcheyamani”.

Malipenga a traditional tumbuka dance for men, Karonga District Malawi

bakutolapo lwande

Banthu abo tabalemba pasi apa bakatolapo lwande pakafukufuku na pakupanga vyakulongola:

Bakujambula vithuzithuzi bakaba ba Green Kapira, Blessings Mwandosya, Aaron Ndovi na Fiona Parrott.

Bakusandasanda bakaba ba Fiona Parrott, Green Kapira, Dorothy Makoka, Blessings Mwandosya, Aaron Ndovi, Paston Mkandawire, Misheck Nkhata na Mia Crampin.

Abo bafumya vyakulongola: Fiona Parrott, Levie Gondwe, Green Kapira, Dorothy Makoka, Blessings Mwandosya, Aaron Ndovi, Paston Mkandawire, Misheck Nkhata and Mia Crampin.

Bakupanga: On the Record and Fiona Parrott.

 

Vyakulongoleka ivi vikachitika na wovwili wa banthu bakuwalo pakuwelelamo kubelenga na kubikapo maghanoghano, mazina ghabo ni agha:

Alister Munthali, PhD. Director of the Centre for Social Research, Chancellor College, University of Malawi.
Lot Nyirenda, PhD. Senior Social Science Researcher at REACH (Research for Equity and Community Health) Trust, Malawi. 
Laban Kashaija Musinguzi, MPhil. Makerere University, Kampala, Uganda.
Rijk van Dijk, PhD, Professor of Anthropology, University of Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

 

Suggested citation:

FR Parrott, G Kapira, D Makoka, A Ndovi, B Mwandosya, L Gondwe, P Mkandawire, MJ Nkhata and AC Crampin (2015) Exhibition: Becoming Fathers - reproductive journeys in Malawi/Ulendo wakufuma kuchinyamata kuya ku udada ku Malawi. https://www.reproductivejourneysinmalawi.org